Here’s a very short but useful article about oxygen waste from turning the flow all the way up to the top (past 15 l/min) which is commonly done:
Arora, N. et al. 2021. Delivery of oxygen by standard oxygen flowmeters. Anaesthesia https://doi.org/10.1111/anae.15548
Here’s a video from the first author showing a demonstration of this type of waste and further info in the comments if you scroll down through the Twitter thread:
Thought might be useful for anyone looking at reducing oxygen waste that creates unnecessary environmental and finanical cost, particularly because of oxygen flow/supply issues during the pandemic. You don’t need to be on Twitter to access the video (just click on link above).