This study aimed to identify adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and its effect on health and environmental and socioeconomic sustainability during the COVID-19 pandemic among a sample of the Italian population. Notably, it intended to assess the effect of adherence to the MedDiet on ecological footprints and food expenditure. A survey was conducted from the 5th to the 24th of April 2020 on Google Forms. The MEDAS questionnaire was used to determine the level of adherence to the MedDiet. The carbon footprint (CO2), water footprint (H2O), and food cost were calculated. In total, 3353 participants completed the questionnaire, ranging from 18 to 86 years old.
The article shows a statistically significant difference in the CO2 and H2O among BMI groups. The low and medium groups showed higher CO2. The food cost (EUR/week) resulted in statistically significant differences among the MEDAS groups. The CO2 results were significantly lower in organic-market buyers compared to non-organic-market buyers (p < 0.001). It emphasises the need for public health to promote awareness of how adhering to a healthy lifestyle and making appropriate food choices can positively impact our health and social and economic well-being, as well as ways this can be achieved.