Scarcity of water and energy, and legal requirements for discharge of waste and wastewater are forcing hemodialysis facilities to change their approach to a more integrated concept of connecting the residual output (in terms of waste, wastewater and energy loss) to the input (in terms of water and energy). Zero liquid discharge is an expanding water treatment philosophy in which hemodialysis wastewater is purified and recycled, leaving little to no effluent remaining when the process is complete, thereby saving money and being beneficial to the environment. This article explores the possible ways to treat hemodialysis wastewater, thus achieving ZLD conditions.
Resource author(s)Tarrass F, Benjelloun O, Benjelloun M
Resource publishing organisation(s) or journalNefrologia
Resource publication dateDecember 2021